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Hurricane Stuff

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Most of this information is compiled from www.weather.com and other sources.

I put this page together b/c during alot of conversations you always wonder how and why things are.

 

Links

http://www.weather.com/encyclopedia/tropical/ - all kinda tidbits, but its tangled

http://www.ares.org/weather/hurricane.htm

http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/

http://www.fema.gov/kids/hunames.htm - information for kids

http://www.mthurricane.com/Information.htm - lots of tables

http://www.gri.msstate.edu/eid/nd_hurrbook.php - lots of info

 

  • Key things -

    • Definition - A hurricane --- a Caribbean Indian word for "evil spirit and big wind" --- is a large rotating system of oceanic tropical origin with sustained surface winds of at least 74 mph somewhere in the storm. Due to the earth's rotation, these storms spin counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere; both types of hemispheric spins are referred to as cyclonic rotation.
    • each "depression/disturbance" is given a number, once it hits wind speeds of 39mph its given a name and a "storm" status, once it hits 74mph it is given a "category" status
    • Categories (more detail below)

      Category

      1 -- Minimal

      2 -- Moderate

      3 -- Extensive

      4 -- Extreme

      5 -- Catastrophic

      Winds

      74 to 95 mph or 64 to 83 kts

      96 to 110 mph or 65 to 96 kts

      111 to 130 mph or 97 to 113 kts

      131 to 155 mph or 114 to 135 kts

      greater than 155 mph or 135 kts

    • names are a list of 23 names (male-female-male...) going through A-W. If goes past W, then they are given Greek alphabet names: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta...etc. more info below
    • 6 name lists are pretermined (6 year cycle)
    • A name is retired and replaced with another based on: loss of life (deaths) or monetary damage (any country can petition the WMO for retirement of a name). Retired names can be reused after 10 years or retired permanently.
    • a storm is given a new name if crosses from Alantic to Pacific
    • 1 knot = 1.15mph
    • millibar - a metric measure of pressure. Atmospheric pressure is the weight of a column of air on a given area of earth, typically one meter squared or one centimeter squared (the most frequent unit of measurement is the millibar, or mb). Troughs fall in four general categories: equatorial troughs, monsoon troughs, frontal troughs, and surface troughs. Less is bad.
    • Season (some can come earlier or later, but most fall in these timeframes)
      • Atlantic hurricane season starts June 1st and ends November 30th
      • North Pacific the official season begins May 15th and ends November 30th
    • Hurricane / Typhoon: A tropical cyclone in which the maximum sustained surface wind (using the U.S. 1-minute average) is 64 kts (74 mph or 119 km/hr) or more. The term hurricane is used for Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclones east of the International Dateline to the Greenwich Meridian. The term typhoon is used for Pacific tropical cyclones north of the Equator west of the International Dateline.

 

  • Hurricane Names
    What's in a name? Naming of tropical storms and hurricanes has been going on for centuries. Hurricanes that swept through the Caribbean were often named for the saint's day on which they occurred.

    Once a tropical disturbance intensifies to tropical storm strength, with wind speeds above 39 miles per hour, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) gives the tropical cyclone a name.

    Prior to 1950, military weather forecasters assigned a number, not a name, to tropical storms. For example, the fifth tropical cyclone of the 1932 hurricane season was called "Hurricane Number 5". For a short time, the military phonetic alphabet, such as Able, Baker, and Charlie was used to assign names.

    Beginning in 1953, tropical storms were assigned female names. Names were listed in alphabetical order, with the first tropical storm of the year given a name beginning with "A."

    In 1978, both men's and women's names were included in the eastern North Pacific storm lists. In 1979, the list of names was expanded to include both male and female names in the Atlantic Basin.

    Member nations of The World Meteorological Organization have since revised the list to include names common to English, Spanish, and French speaking peoples. The order of men and women alternates every year. For example, in 1995 the list began with Allison. In 1996, it began with Arthur.

    There are six lists of tropical cyclone names, each composed of 23 names from A to W. The lists are used on a rotating basis. For instance, the 1997 set will be used again to name storms in the year 2003.

    If a tropical storm forms in the Atlantic and crosses over to the Pacific, it will be given a new name.

    Occasionally, a name is retired from the list when a particular tropical cyclone has caused many deaths or a tremendous amount of damage. Some retired names include Andrew, Bob, Camille, David, Elena, Frederic, Opal, Fran, and Hugo.

    Check out the names for this Hurricane Season in the Atlantic Basin and the Pacific Basin.

    Check out further information on the hurricane season.

 

  • 2005-2022 Hurricane Names (remember names could be retired)

    2005 - 2022 Name (as of 2005)

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2008

    2009

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2013

    2014

    2015

    2016

    2017

    2018

    2019

    2020

    2021

    2022

    Arlene

    Alberto

    Andrea

    Arthur

    Ana

    Alex

    Bret

    Beryl

    Barry

    Bertha

    Bill

    Bonnie

    Cindy

    Chris

    Chantal

    Cristobal

    Claudette

    Colin

    Dennis

    Debby

    Dean

    Dolly

    Danny

    Danielle

    Emily

    Ernesto

    Erin

    Edouard

    Erika

    Earl

    Franklin

    Florence

    Felix

    Fay

    Fred

    Fiona

    Gert

    Gordon

    Gabrielle

    Gustav

    Grace

    Gaston

    Harvey

    Helene

    Humberto

    Hanna

    Henri

    Hermine

    Irene

    Isaac

    Ingrid

    Ike

    Ida

    Igor

    Jose

    Joyce

    Jerry

    Josephine

    Joaquin

    Julia

    Katrina

    Kirk

    Karen

    Kyle

    Kate

    Karl

    Lee

    Leslie

    Lorenzo

    Laura

    Larry

    Lisa

    Maria

    Michael

    Melissa

    Marco

    Mindy

    Matthew

    Nate

    Nadine

    Noel

    Nana

    Nicholas

    Nicole

    Ophelia

    Oscar

    Olga

    Omar

    Odette

    Otto

    Philippe

    Patty

    Pablo

    Paloma

    Peter

    Paula

    Rita

    Rafael

    Rebekah

    Rene

    Rose

    Richard

    Stan

    Sandy

    Sebastien

    Sally

    Sam

    Shary

    Tammy

    Tony

    Tanya

    Teddy

    Teresa

    Tomas

    Vince

    Valerie

    Van

    Vicky

    Victor

    Virginie

    Wilma

    William

    Wendy

    Wilfred

    Wanda

    Walter

 

  • Whats Category >> The Saffir-Simpson Damage-Potential Scale
    This scale was developed in the early 1970s by Herbert Saffir, a consulting engineer in Coral Gables, Florida, and Dr. Robert Simpson, then Director of the National Hurricane Center. The scale is based primarily on wind speeds and includes estimates of barometric pressure and storm surge associated with each of the five categories.

    • Category

      Central Pressure Winds Surge

      1 -- Minimal

      greater than 980 mb or 28.94 in

      74 to 95 mph or 64 to 83 kts

      4 to 5 feet

      2 -- Moderate

      965 to 979 mb or 28.50 to 28.91 in

      96 to 110 mph or 65 to 96 kts

      6 to 8 feet

      3 -- Extensive

      945 to 964 mb or 27.91 to 28.47 in

      111 to 130 mph or 97 to 113 kts

      9 to 12 feet

      4 -- Extreme

      920 to 944 mb or 27.17 to 27.88 in

      131 to 155 mph or 114 to 135 kts

      13 to 18 feet

      5 -- Catastrophic

      less than 920 mb or 27.17 in

      greater than 155 mph or 135 kts

      greater than 18 feet

      • Category 1 [Minimal] 74 to 95 mph
        • damage primarily restricted to shrubbery, trees, and unanchored mobile homes; no substantial damage to other structures; some damage to poorly constructed signs
        • low lying roads inundated; minor damage to piers; small craft in exposed anchorages torn from moorings
      • Category 2 [Moderate] 96 to 110 mph 
        • considerable damage to shrubbery and tree foliage, some trees blown down; major damage to exposed mobile homes; extensive damage to poorly constructed signs and some damage to windows, doors and roofing materials of buildings, but no major destruction to buildings
        • coastal roads and low lying escape routes inland cut off by rising water about 2 to 4 hours before landfall; considerable damage to piers and marinas flooded; small craft in protected anchorage torn from moorings
        • evacuation of some shoreline residences and low lying areas required
      • Category 3 [Extensive] 111 to 130 mph
        • foliage torn from trees; large trees blown down; poorly constructed signs blown down; some damage to roofing, windows, and doors; some structural damage to small buildings; mobile homes destroyed.
        • serious flooding along the coast; many small structures near the coast destroyed; larger coastal structures damaged by battering waves and floating debris
        • low lying escape routes inland cut off by rising water about 3 to 5 hours before landfall; flat terrain 5 feet or less above sea level flooded up to 8 or more miles inland
        • evacuation of low lying residences within several blocks of shoreline may be required
      • Category 4 [Extreme] 131 to 155
        • shrubs, trees, and all signs blown down; extensive damage to roofs, windows, and doors, with complete failure of roofs on many smaller residences; mobile homes demolished
        • flat terrain 10 feet or less above sea level flooded inland as far as 6 miles; flooding and battering by waves and floating debris cause major damage to lower floors of structures near the shore; low lying escape routes inland cut off by rising water about 3 to 5 hours before landfall; major erosion of beaches
        • massive evacuation of all residences within 500 yards of the shore may be required, as well as of single story residences in low ground with 2 miles of the shore
      • Category 5 [Catastrophic] greater than 155 mph
        • trees, shrub, and all signs blown down; considerable damage to roofs of buildings, with very severe and extensive damage to winds and doors; complete failure on many roofs of residences and industrial buildings; extensive shattering of glass in windows and doors; complete buildings destroyed; small building overturned or blown away; mobile homes demolished
        • major damage to lower floors of all structures less than 15 feet above sea level within 1500 feet of the shore
        • low lying escape routes inland cut off by rising water about 3 to 5 hours before landfall; major erosion of beaches
        • massive evacuation of residential areas on low ground within 5 to 10 miles of the shore may be required


 


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