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Research-aholic · PSU Troubleshooting

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Latest News

5/2009 - Seagate Barracuda 7200.11 firmware probs

you can check model and serial numbers on link below

 


Links

 


RAID Information

 

here is a description of all
here is performance eval
here is another overview
 

 

 

RAID (redundant array of independent disks; originally redundant array of inexpensive disks) is a way of storing the same data in different places (thus, redundantly) on multiple hard disks. By placing data on multiple disks, I/O operations can overlap in a balanced way, improving performance. Since multiple disks increases the mean time between failure (MTBF), storing data redundantly also increases fault-tolerance.

A RAID appears to the operating system to be a single logical hard disk. RAID employs the technique of striping, which involves partitioning each drive's storage space into units ranging from a sector (512 bytes) up to several megabytes. The stripes of all the disks are interleaved and addressed in order.

In a single-user system where large records, such as medical or other scientific images, are stored, the stripes are typically set up to be small (perhaps 512 bytes) so that a single record spans all disks and can be accessed quickly by reading all disks at the same time.

In a multi-user system, better performance requires establishing a stripe wide enough to hold the typical or maximum size record. This allows overlapped disk I/O across drives.

There are at least nine types of RAID plus a non-redundant array (RAID-0):

  • RAID-0. This technique has striping but no redundancy of data. It offers the best performance but no fault-tolerance.
  • RAID-1. This type is also known as disk mirroring and consists of at least two drives that duplicate the storage of data. There is no striping. Read performance is improved since either disk can be read at the same time. Write performance is the same as for single disk storage. RAID-1 provides the best performance and the best fault-tolerance in a multi-user system.
  • RAID-2. This type uses striping across disks with some disks storing error checking and correcting (ECC) information. It has no advantage over RAID-3.
  • RAID-3. This type uses striping and dedicates one drive to storing parity information. The embedded error checking (ECC) information is used to detect errors. Data recovery is accomplished by calculating the exclusive OR (XOR) of the information recorded on the other drives. Since an I/O operation addresses all drives at the same time, RAID-3 cannot overlap I/O. For this reason, RAID-3 is best for single-user systems with long record applications.
  • RAID-4. This type uses large stripes, which means you can read records from any single drive. This allows you to take advantage of overlapped I/O for read operations. Since all write operations have to update the parity drive, no I/O overlapping is possible. RAID-4 offers no advantage over RAID-5.
  • RAID-5. This type includes a rotating parity array, thus addressing the write limitation in RAID-4. Thus, all read and write operations can be overlapped. RAID-5 stores parity information but not redundant data (but parity information can be used to reconstruct data). RAID-5 requires at least three and usually five disks for the array. It's best for multi-user systems in which performance is not critical or which do few write operations.
  • RAID-6. This type is similar to RAID-5 but includes a second parity scheme that is distributed across different drives and thus offers extremely high fault- and drive-failure tolerance. There are few or no commercial examples currently.
  • RAID-7. This type includes a real-time embedded operating system as a controller, caching via a high-speed bus, and other characteristics of a stand-alone computer. One vendor offers this system.
  • RAID-10. This type offers an array of stripes in which each stripe is a RAID-1 array of drives. This offers higher performance than RAID-1 but at much higher cost.
  • RAID-53. This type offers an array of stripes in which each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. This offers higher performance than RAID-3 but at much higher cost.


COM & LPT Ports (I know this is old, but somebody will use it)

    • Most commonly used devices in a PC use a IRQ, ( Interrupt Request ) I/O address.
    • When installing a new device you need to read the documentation to insure you are properly configuring you device to work with your PC.
    • Any other device that is using the same IRQ for example will conflict and lock up your computer. Be careful.
    • These are "common", some card/devices/BIOS let you change them to what you need.

COM

IRQ

I/O Address

1

4

03F8

2

3

02F8

3

4

03E8

4

3

02E8

LPT

IRQ

I/O Address

1

7

378h or 3BCh

2

5

278 or 378h

3

5

03E8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


BIOS Keys by computer

 

Computer Key Command(s)
Acer® F1, F2, CTRL+ALT+ESC
AST® CTRL+ALT+ESC, CTRL+ALT+DEL
Compaq® 8700 F10
CompUSA® DEL
Cybermax® ESC
Dell® 400 F3
Dell 400 F1
Dell Dimension® F2 or DEL
Dell Inspiron® F2
Dell Latitude Fn+F1 (while booted)
Dell Latitude F2 (on boot)
Dell Optiplex DEL
Dell Optiplex F2
Dell Precision™ F2
eMachine DEL
Gateway® 2000 1440 F1
Gateway 2000 Solo™ F2
HP® (Hewlett-Packard) F1, F2
IBM® F1
IBM E-pro Laptop F2
IBM PS/2® CTRL+ALT+INS after CTRL+ALT+DEL
IBM Thinkpad® (newer) Windows: Programs-Thinkpad CFG.
Intel® Tangent DEL
Micron F1, F2, or DEL
Packard Bell® F1, F2, Del
Sony® VIAO F2
Sony VIAO F3
Tiger DEL
Toshiba® 335 CDS ESC
Toshiba Protege ESC
Toshiba Satellite 205 CDS F1
Toshiba Tecra F1 or ESC
Bios Manufacturer Key Command(s)
ALR Advanced Logic Research, Inc. ® PC / PCI F2
ALR PC non / PCI CTRL+ALT+ESC
AMD® (Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.) BIOS F1
 
AMI (American Megatrends, Inc.) BIOS DEL
Award™ BIOS CTRL+ALT+ESC
Award BIOS DEL
Phoenix™ BIOS CTRL+ALT+ESC
Phoenix BIOS CTRL+ALT+S
Phoenix BIOS CTRL+ALT+INS


What's The Speed

  • Here is list of connections that I have compiled with speeds and max distances.
  • These are "what they were designed to do from a max speed scenario", you might not get the actual speed or distance...it all depends on your scenario that you have setup. For Instance: Serial port distance can go further if you slow the speed down. Most all these can go further with repeaters, signal boosters, or really good cable.
  • xb and xB is not the same. x=K(kilo) or M(mega) and b=bits B=bytes...it's the advertising thing ya know.
  • Link to some info - http://www.interfacebus.com/Interface_Cable_Buses.html

Binary Name

Size

bit

1

(1 or 0/on or off)

Byte

8 bits

(1 character)

Kilobyte (KB)

1,024 bytes

Megabyte (MB)

1,024 KBs

Gigabyte (GB)

1,024 MBs

Terabyte

1,024 GBs

Petabyte

1,024 TBs

 

*other measurement is annotated if MB doesn't make sense

Connection

MB per sec

Max Distance

Outside your computer

 

 

serial port (DB9 or DB25 or RS232)

115200bps

15m

standard parallel port (centronix)

115200bps

15m

ECP/EPP parallel port (centronix)

3

10m

Original USB (v1.0)

1.5

5m

Hi-Speed USB (v2.0)

57

5m

IEEE-1394 (firewire)

12.5-50

4.5m

IrDA (Infrared) v1.0

2400-115200K

1m

IrDA (Infrared) v1.1

1.5

1m

IrDA (Infrared) 4PPM

4

1m

Inside your computer

 

 

ISA (8-bit)

7.9

 

ISA (16-bit)

15.9

 

MCA (Micro Channel Architecture) (32-bit)

40

 

EISA (32-bit)

31.8

 

VESA (aka VLB) (32-bit)

127

 

PCI (33MHz) (32-bit)

132

 

PCI 2.1 (64-bit)

508

 

PCI-X (66-133MHz)

1Gb

 

AGP (2x) (32-bit)

500

 

AGP (4x) (32-bit)

1Gb

 

AGP (8x) (32-bit)

2.1Gb

 

PCI-Express (1x) (PCI-E)

250

 

PCI-Express (2x)

500

 

PCI-Express (4x)

1Gb

 

PCI-Express (8x)

2Gb

 

PCI-Express (16x) (video)

4Gb

 

PCI-Express (32x)

8Gb

 

PCI-X 2.0 (266-533MHz)

4.3Gb

 

IDE

3.3-16.7

1m

IDE Ultra DMA ATA 33

33

IDE Ultra DMA ATA 66

66

IDE Ultra DMA ATA 100

100

IDE Ultra DMA ATA 133

133

Serial ATA (SATA-I or SATA-150)

150

Serial ATA II (SATA-II or SATA-300)

300

 

SCSI-1

5

SCSI-2 (Fast SCSI, Fast Narrow SCSI)

10

Fast Wide SCSI (Wide SCSI)

20

Ultra SCSI (SCSI-3, Fast-20, Ultra Narrow)

20

Ultra2 SCSI

40

Ultra3 SCSI

80

Wide Ultra SCSI (Fast Wide 20)

40

Wide Ultra2 SCSI

80

Wide Ultra3 SCSI

160

FC-AL Fiber Channel

100-400

Outside your computer...Networking

 

 

BNC (Coax Cable, RG-58A/U or RG-58C/U)

1.5

*600ft

10base-2 (coaxial)

10

600ft

10base-T (CAT3 ethernet twisted pair)

1.25/10Mbits

100m

100base-T (CAT5 ethernet twisted pair)

12.5/100Mbits

100m

1000base-T (ethernet over twisted pair)

1000Mbits

100m

Fiber ethernet

1GB

10km

Wireless 802.11b

11

180m

Wireless 802.11g

54

50m

56k modem

53K

Cable (theory - what its designed to do)

30

Cable (what you probably get)

128kUP/3MbDWN

DSL (theory - what its designed to do)

10

DSL (what you probably get)

128kUP/1.5MbDWN


Manufacturer Links

 

CPUs/Chips

Video Cards (by chipset)

Video drivers search - www.videodrivers.com

 

ATI based

nVidia based

Other

Motherboards

whole list - www.motherboards.org

Harddrives


USB Stuff

all you need to know about USB - http://www.usb.org/faq/

need to buy some kind of device - www.usbgear.com


Online Stores

 


Stupid Things

 

no case - http://www.g-news.ch/articles/nhp200nc/

super cooled - http://www.peteredge.orcon.net.nz/casepics.htm

 

 


Screen Resolutions

 

List of common resolutions

From Wikipedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of image resolutions sorted by the horizontal resolution in ascending numerical order.

Resolution (HxV) Pixels Aspect Ratio Name Description Controlling standard/organisation
176x144 25 344 Quarter-CIF Video teleconferencing, &c. CCITT/ITU H.261
320x240 76 800 4:3 Quarter-VGA View finders, &c. PC industry
352x288 101 376 Common Image Format (CIF) Video teleconferencing CCITT/ITU H.261
640x480 307 200 4:3 Video Graphics Adaptor (VGA) Computer monitors PC industry (VESA standards)
720×350 252 000 Monochrome Display Adaptor (MDA)[1] Computer monitors IBM
720x480 345 600 3:2 Digital 525/60 video standard[2][3] Digital video CCIR-601
720x576 414 720 5:4 Digital 625/50 video standard[4][5] Digital video CCIR-601
768x483 370 944 Non-standard 525/60 video[6][7] Digital video SMPTE 244M
768x576 442 368 4:3 "Square-pixel" 625/50 video Digital video
800x600 480 000 4:3 Super VGA (SVGA) standard Computer monitors PC industry (VESA standards)
854x480 409 920 16:9 Widescreen 480-line format[8] LCD/PDP TV displays
948x576 546 048 Non-standard 625/60 video[9][10] Digital video
1024x576 589 824 16:9 Widescreen 576-line eXtended Graphics Array (XGA) PC standard Computer monitors PC industry (VESA standards)
1024x768 786 432 4:3 eXtended Graphics Array (XGA) Computer monitors PC industry (VESA standards)
1152x864 995 328 4:3 Apple Computer 1 Mpixel standard Computer monitors Apple Computers
1280x720 921 600 720 HDTV format Digital television ATSC
1280x960 1 228 800 4:3 4:3 alternative to XGA Computer monitors PC industry
1280x1024 1 310 720 5:4 Super XGA (SXGA) standard Computer monitors Unix workstations
1365x768 1 048 320 16:9 768-line Wide XGA format[11] LCD/PDP TV displays
1440x900 1 296 000 16:10 Wide XGA+ (WXGA) or Wide SXGA (WSXGA) Computer monitors VESA
1400x1050 1 470 000 SXGA+ Notebook LCD panels PC industry
1680x1050 1 764 000 16:10 Wide SXGA+ (WSXGA+) Computer monitors VESA
1600x1200 1 920 000 4:3 Ultra XGA (UXGA) Computer monitors VESA
1920x1080 2 073 600 16:9 16:9 HDTV standard format HDTV technologies ATSC
1920x1200 2 304 000 16:10 Wide UXGA (WUXGA) Computer monitors PC industry
2048x1152 2 359 296 16:9 16:9 European HDTV format HDTV technologies DVB-T
2048x1536 3 145 728 4:3 Quad XGA (QXGA) Computer monitors VESA
2560x1600 4 096 000 16:10 Wide QXGA (WQXGA) Computer monitors VESA
2560x2048 5 242 880 5:4 Quad Super XGA (QSXGA) Computer monitors VESA
3200x2048 6 553 600 25:16 Wide QSXGA (WQSXGA) Computer monitors VESA
3200x2400 7 680 000 4:3 Quad Ultra XGA (QUXGA) Computer monitors VESA
3840x2400 9 216 000 16:10 Wide QUXGA (WQUXGA) Computer monitors VESA
4096x3072 12 582 912 4:3 Hexadecatuple XGA (HXGA) Computer monitors VESA
5120x3200 16 384 000 16:10 Wide HXGA (WHXGA) Computer monitors VESA
5120x4096 20 971 520 5:4 Hexadecatuple Super XGA (HSXGA) Computer monitors VESA
6400x4096 26 214 400 25:16 Wide HSXGA (WHSXGA) Computer monitors VESA
6400x4800 30 720 000 4:3 Hexadecatuple Ultra XGA (HUXGA) Computer monitors VESA
7680x4800 36 864 000 16:10 Wide HUXGA (WHUXGA) Computer monitors VESA
 
 
16:9
Width Height PixelDif Letterboxed
64 36 48 / 24 64:48 (+0:+12)
128 72 112 / 60 128:96 (+0:+24)
192 108 176 / 96 192:144 (+0:+36)
256 144 240 / 132 256:192 (+0:+48)
320 180 304 / 168 320:240 (+0:+60)
384 216 368 / 204 384:288 (+0:+72)
448 252 432 / 240 448:336 (+0:+84)
512 288 496 / 276 512:384 (+0:+96)
576 324 560 / 312 576:432 (+0:+108)
640 360 624 / 348 640:480 (+0:+120)
704 396 688 / 384 704:528 (+0:+132)
768 432 752 / 420 768:576 (+0:+144)
832 468 816 / 456 832:624 (+0:+156)
896 504 880 / 492 896:672 (+0:+168)
960 540 944 / 528 960:720 (+0:+180)
1024 576 1008 / 564 1024:768 (+0:+192)
1088 612 1072 / 600 1088:816 (+0:+204)
1152 648 1136 / 636 1152:864 (+0:+216)
1216 684 1200 / 672 1216:912 (+0:+228)
1280 720 1264 / 708 1280:960 (+0:+240)
1344 756 1328 / 744 1344:1008 (+0:+252)
1408 792 1392 / 780 1408:1056 (+0:+264)
1472 828 1456 / 816 1472:1104 (+0:+276)
1536 864 1520 / 852 1536:1152 (+0:+288)
1600 900 1584 / 888 1600:1200 (+0:+300)
 
 


 


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